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Individual ions are finally detected by single-ion counting (with silicon surface-barrier detectors, ionization chambers, and/or time-of-flight telescopes). Alvarez and Robert Cornog of the United States first used an accelerator as a mass spectrometer in 1939 when they employed a cyclotron to demonstrate that He was stable; from this observation they immediately and correctly concluded that the other mass-3 isotope tritium was radioactive. Muller at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory recognized that modern accelerators could accelerate radioactive particles to an energy where the background interferences could be separated using particle identification techniques. His paper was the direct inspiration for other groups using cyclotrons (G. Yiou, in France) and tandem linear accelerators (D.
Thanks to the high energy of the ions, these detectors can provide additional identification of background isobars by nuclear-charge determination. There are other ways in which AMS is achieved; however, they all work based on improving mass selectivity and specificity by creating high kinetic energies before molecule destruction by stripping, followed by single-ion counting.
-counting method) or by directly counting the radiocarbon atoms using a method called Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS).